Based on rising costs for gasoline ans oil and its political importance, many customers choose a biomass heater. By now there are a multitudes of providers of different fuels.
Biomass means all naturals fuels. The biggest meaning has wood, because it is a good energy carrier and energy supplier. By burning wood energy is being extracted. The advantage is, that wood is growing continuously, has a neutrally carbon footprint. So it is very eco friendly, like all the other natural fuels.
Wood can be used in different ways as a fuel:
>wooden pellets: wooden pellets are cylindrical briquettes, formed by wooden scrap. Based on their high energy density and the compact dimensions (1-5 cm length und 4-10 mm caliber), they are exceptionally suitable as a fuel.
The energy content of wooden pellets can be compared the best way, if you estimate the fuel value in kwh/kilogram. Based on the energy value 2kg of wooden pellets can be compared to 1 litre of heating oil. The combustion efficiency represents at 85 to 96% at good boilers.
Wooden pellets are recommendable in smaller areas of a building, because they are transportable and superposable quite good. Modern ovens for wooden pellets are technically matured and are a real alternative to oil- and gasoline heaters. Meanwhile there are pelletboilers available as CHPs.
Wooden pellets are exceptionally suitable as a fuel based on their compact dimensions. They are transportable and superposable quite good. They are different possibilities to heat with pellets:
-wooden pellets chimneys
-full automatically wooden pellet constructions
-combined constructions for wooden pellets and firewood
A heater, that is been armed with pellets automatically workes in the following way:
Similar to fuel oil a special bulk tank truck delivers the pellets. These will be blown into the stora room. Compared to a special store room, wooden pellets can be storaged in a provided container. The stock of pellets is connected by a conveyor to the pellet boiler. Thereupon the pellets are burned in the fire box inside the boiler and the produced heat is guided to the warmwater store.
A wooden pellet construnction usually consists of the following comonents; the fire box, the heat exchanger, the regulation, the store container for pellets and a conveyor at an automatically construction.
>Woodchips: woodchips are machine-made crushed woodpieces. They are suitable as a fuel quite good, because comparing to firewood the transportation and the storage are easier.
The technology of burning and storage is comparable to the one with pellets, certainly these constructions are mostly used at a higher need of warmth.
Depending to their performance woodchips are available in different sizes.
Die boilers are full automatically compared to pellet boilers, mostly with a conveyor.
Woodchips can be produced on location out of tree trunks or delivered ready-to-use. Important is the space requirement for drying and storage. Because of the lower fuel value that space has to be double-sized compared to space of pellets.
At some woodchip boilers other biomass are reasonable for burning, just like miscanthus, grain waste or straw.
The energy content of woodchips can be compared the best way, if you estimate the fuel value in kwh/kilogram. Woodchips have a fuel value of about 5 kWh/kilogram. Based on the lower apparent weight the needed storage is higher. The combustion efficiency represents at 80 to 93% at good boilers.
>Split logs: Split logs are simple wooden pieces, used as a fuel in so called spiit log boilers.
In modern boilers the wood gas is used for burning, so a controled and guided burning with a low pollutant emission takes place.
The boilers mostly are placed in the basement and the produced heat is stored in backup memories. Because the fact that those boilers cannot be switched off and the heat production is not canceled, the stores have to be dimensioned big enough.
For burning dryed pieces of wood can be used, both pinewood and hardwood can be burned.